Chinese typography reading list


Chi, Chia-fen; Cai, Dengchuan; You, Manlai (2003). Applying image descriptors to the assessment of legibility in Chinese characters. In Ergonomics, volume 46, number 8, 825–841.

Ho, Chung-wing 何松榮 (1994). 中文的直排與橫排——中文報紙內文排列的研究 [Horizontal versus vertical Chinese typesetting – a study on the typesetting of text in the Chinese newspapers]. In Lee, Paul S N and Leung, Kenneth W Y, eds. 香港傳播研究 [Communication research in Hong Kong]. Hong Kong: Department of Journalism & Communication, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. 57–76.

Miles, W R; Shen, Eugene (1927). Photographic recording of eye movements in the reading of Chinese in vertical and horizontal axes; methods and preliminary results. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10, 158–183.

Stallings, W (1976). Approaches to Chinese character recognition. Pattern Recognition 8, 87–98

Sun, Fuchan; Morita, Michon; Stark, Laurence W (1985). Comparative patterns of reading eye movement in Chinese and English. Perception & Psychophysics 37 (1985) 502–506.

Wang, An-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Hsun (2003). Effects of screen type, Chinese typography, text/background color combination, speed, and jump length for VDT leading display on users’ reading performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 31, 249–261.

Wong, Paul Yiu Chung and Hsu, Siu Chi (1995). Designing Chinese typeface using components. IEEE 0730-3157/95, 416–421

Zhang, Bing; Li, Ying; Suen, Ching Y; Zhang, Xuemin (2011). Discovering legible Chinese typefaces for reading digital documents. 2011 International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE, 962–966.

Zhang, Jun-Yun; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Feng; Liu, Lei; Yu, Cong (2007). Legibility variations of Chinese characters and implications for visual acuity measurement in Chinese reading population. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, volume 28, number 5, 2383–2390.


Heijdra, Martin J. (2004). Technology, culture and economics: movable type versus woodblock printing. Studies of Publishing Culture in East Asia: Niwatazumi. Tokyo: Nigensha. 223–240.

Heijdra, Martin J. (2006). A tale of two aesthetics: typography versus calligraphy in the pre-modern Chinese book’. Ming, Wilson and Pierson, Stacey, eds. The art of the book in Chinese (colloquies on art & archaeology in Asia no. 23). London: University of London, Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, School of Oriental and African Studies. 15–27.

Heijdra, Martin J. (2004). The development of modern typography in East Asia, 1850–2000. The East Asian Library Journal 11, no. 2. 100–168.

Li, Mingjun 李明君 (1996). 中国美术字史图说 [An illustrated history of artistic calligraphy in China]. Beijing: People’s Fine Art Publishing House.

Li, Shaobo 李少波 (2011). 中国黑体字源流考 [In search of the origins of Heiti typefaces in China]. In 裝飾 [Zhuangshi], 2011, issue 3.

Li, Shaobo 李少波 (2008). 黑體字研究 [The research on Heiti type] (PhD thesis). Beijing: Central Academy of Fine Arts.

Minick, Scott and Ping, Jiao (1990). Chinese graphic design in the twentieth century. London: Thames and Hudson.

Shi, Xuan 时璇 (2012). 视觉: 中国近现代平面设计发展研究 [Visual: research on the developments of modern graphic design in China]. Beijing: Culture and Art Publishing House.

Wood, Frances (1985). History of printing in China. In The Monotype Recorder, new series, number 5, September 1985. 1–9.

Zhang, Shu 张抒 (2013). 美哉宋体字 [Beautiful Songti]. Chongqing, China: Chongqing University Press.

Zhang, Soumin 张秀民 (2006). 中国印刷史 (插图珍藏增订版) [History of printing in China, illustrated collectable expanded edition]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Ancient Books Publishing House.

Chinese type design and typography

Cao, Hongkui 曹洪奎 (1975). 铅印排版技术 [The techniques of typesetting with lead type]. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.

Chen, Dunhua 陳敦化 (1972). 印刷設計 [Designing for printing]. Taipei: Wei Xin Shu Ju

He, Jizheng 何繼曾 (1959). 排字淺說 [An elementary introduction to typesetting]. Beijing: Commercial Press.

Kan, Tai Keung 靳埭強 (2016) 字體設計100+1 [Type design 100+1]. Hong Kong: ET Press.

Ke, Zhije and Su, Weixiang 柯志杰、蘇煒翔 (2014). 字型散步:日常生活的中文字型學 [Type walk: typography in everyday life]. Taipei: Faces Publishing.

Lu, Xiaoqing and Tang, Ting (2016) ‘Elements of Chinese typeface design’. In Dyson, Mary C and Suen, Ching Y, eds. Digital fonts and reading. Singapore: World Scientific. 109–130

Man Kwong Publishing 文光出版社編輯部 (1988). 中文字造形設計實例 [Chinese character formation design]. Hong Kong: Man Kwong Publishing

Nan, Tianjian 楠天健 (1995). 电子排版技术 [Digital typesetting techniques]. Beijing: Tsing Hua University Press.

‘Photosetting Chinese – a world-first for Monotype’. In The Monotype Recorder, new series, number 5, September 1985. 10–13

Tam, K (2018) ‘Hanzi’, in Wittner, B; Thoma, S; Hartmann, T, eds. Bi-scriptual: typography and graphic design with multiple script systems. Salenstein, Switzerland: Niggli, 204–211

Tse, Tak Lung 謝德隆 (1992). 設計與印刷的橋樑 [The bridge between design and printing]. Hong Kong: Keyline Publishing Co.

Punctuation standards

Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China (2011). 中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 15834–2011: 标点符号用法 [National standards of the People’s Republic of China GB/T 15834–2011: General rules for punctuation, ]

Ministry of Education, Republic of China (Taiwan) (2009). 重訂標點符號手冊, 修訂版 [Revised handbook of punctuation, new edition].

Multilingual typography

Takagi, Mariko (2014) Hanzigraphy: a typographic translation between Latin letters and Chinese characters. Hong Kong: MCCM Creations.

Xiaofeng Wang 王小枫 (2013) 中西文字并排设计 [Chinese & Latin typography]. Dalian, China: Dalian University of Technology Press.

Sadek, G. and Maxim, Z. (1997) Typographia polyglotta: a comparative study in multilingual typesetting (2nd edition). Association Typographique Internationale, New York, USA.

Wittner, B; Thoma, S; Hartmann, T, eds (2018) Bi-scriptual: typography and graphic design with multiple script systems. Salenstein, Switzerland: Niggli

Language and information processing

Crystal, David (2010). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gu, D W (1994). The standardisation of Chinese Characters. Chinese World 36, 33–36.

Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, nineteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version:

Lunde, K. (2009). CJKV information processing, 2nd edition. O’Rilley, Sebastopol, CA, USA.

Wang, W S Y (1973). The Chinese language. Scientific American 228, 50–60.